Monday, January 20, 2020
The Characters of The Color PurpleÃ Ã In The Color Purple, by Alice Walker, Celie, Nettie, and Mr.______ are developed gradually throughout the novel and their actions all seem to be intertwined and what happens to one of them effects one if not both of the other two. There is a strong relationship between Celie and Nettie not just because they are siblings but because Nettie is one out of two people Celie loves, and this doesn't exist between Celie and any other of her siblings. There are various things that bring these two even closer, one being the discovery that they both come from a different father which Celie discover from a letter from Nettie which reads "...and I pray with all my heart that you get this letter, if none of the others. Pa is not our Pa." (182) and the one they thought was there flesh and blood father was actually only their step father. This brings them closer for it is so important and they are each others direct relatives for both parents are dead and they do not have any other brothers or sisters. The second point is that they keep in contact when Nettie is traveling to and from Africa. This is more or less an escape for Celie for she does not really have anyone except for Shug that she loves so the letters are a way for Celie to keep not only with Nettie but also her two children that she has only seen for a for a couple of days in her entire life. So the main bond between Nettie and Celie is one of love, and they demonstrate this by constantly trying to stay in touch even though they don't know if the other is receiving the letters. The relationship between Mr. ______ and Nettie changes drastically from love to hate. Nettie first introduces Mr. ______ into the story as the man she is going to marry, Celie says to Nettie one day "I say marry him, Nettie." but when the marriage is disallowed because she is to young plus pa wants to keep her in school, but Mr. ______ is given Celie along with a cow so in the marriage to Celie Mr. ______ realises he'll never get Nettie but he still loves her but Nettie begins to go off him, for his marriage to her sister.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The Effective Early Learning Project based at Worcester University highlights two ways in which adults can help children progress; The first is the way the adult encourages the child to be autonomous, to get on and try new things; The second, is the way the adult offers experiences which are stimulating, challenging and interesting. Adults need to be a supporting factor when the child is in a Ã¢â¬ËriskyÃ¢â¬â¢ environment. Children and adults alike enjoy climbing trees; adults know when they are too high as do children. This is a whole other debate in terms of nature or nurture debate. This is where we could explore the idea of children learning to be safe when risk taking or is it already Ã¢â¬ËthereÃ¢â¬â¢. Stephenson (2003) wrote about a child on a swing, Ã¢â¬ËSwinging was very popular with these younger children, but more often than the older children their reactions indicated that they felt unsafe and wanted the swing slowed downÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore the child has taken the risk, has agreed a boundary, enjoyed the activity and acknowledged the safety aspect. The adult was there to ensure the safety and also make the activity a positive one by being readily available. Children must face all different kinds of risks in order to support their development and learning. Stine (1997) wrote that to support their learning and development is a complex issue. There always has to be provision for a physical challenge. More and more educational settings are using outdoor play/activity to challenge the children. Although, what is an acceptable risk to one person, may be completely the opposite of another. Bruce and Meggitt (2002) write that Ã¢â¬Ëoutdoor space needs to be available most of the timeÃ¢â¬â¢; They continue that, safety is the only consideration for keeping children in doors. Children can feel safe in Ã¢â¬Ërisk takingÃ¢â¬â¢ environments and activities in many ways. Initially the adult to child ratio, with a high number of adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ children can be supported and helped to achieve. Secondly by minimising, if possible, the risk aspect. This could be ensuring the activity is a positive and acceptable environment. Thirdly by giving the children all the opportunities available for physical risk taking, children need a stimulating and challenging environment. And finally, a well maintained balance between the childÃ¢â¬â¢s safety and the challenge of the activity. In an educational setting, an adult carer will go to the Ã¢â¬Ërisk areaÃ¢â¬â¢ and carry out an assessment. They will check the route to be taken, dangers in the area and also any area that poses extreme concern. An adult carer should also think about the child to adult ratio. A local nursery allows children to climb trees. Due to the child to adult ratio, the nursery feels that the level of risk posed can be curtailed by having by having the children supervised and supported through the activity by adults. The children are therefore enjoying the activity of risk taking, as well as feeling safe in knowing an adult is available to help at any time. Another factor that the adult carer should be aware of is the idea of making a childÃ¢â¬â¢s environment completely hazard free. Therefore taking away any risk or danger. Walsh (1993) thought that children in an environment that is completely Ã¢â¬ËsafeÃ¢â¬â¢ could become bored and this could lead to self initiated risk taking that could be dangerous. Durberry (2001) felt that children who grow up in an ultra safe environment would Ã¢â¬Ëlack confidence in their own physical abilityÃ¢â¬â¢. This would be due to the poor opportunities for the children to build and extend upon their exiting knowledge. He continued that children had to be both confident and competent physically in order to feel competent emotionally. The ideals on risk taking vary from culture to culture. Although the main aim remains the same. The child needs to remain safe, but feel they are being challenged and stimulated. To minimise hazards there needs to be a high adult to child ratio. Children need opportunities to explore and do so independently. Over the last decade, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of choice has been limited. Adult carers are sometimes over anxious about letting the child experiment with risk taking. The procedures and guidelines that are in place give the adult carer a frame work on which to base their activities upon. The adult carer should exploit and become fluent in the procedures and guidelines in place. This in turn will provide groundwork for safe risk taking. Bibliography Smith, P., Cowie, H. & Blades, M. (2003) Understanding ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Development, London: Blackwell Publishing.Ã Bruce, T. & Meggitt, C. (2002) Childcare & Education, London: Hodder & Stoughton.Ã DfEE (2003) Early Years (Volume 23, Number 1), London: Taylor & Francis
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Compensation for Displaced people Development-induced displacement uproot households from the land where their livelihoods insisted on and they produced food for their survival and lead reduction in food production and householdÃ¢â¬â¢s income, break social ties and networks that community established local voluntary association for many years to support socially each during occasion of pleasures and heartbreak like Idir, Iqub and mahber ceased and families can separated from existing social organization where socio-economic support was vital and psychological problems raised, so compensation has been based on social vulnerability to avoid economic impoverishment, structurally capable in resolving the task of restoring income and livelihoods andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦220.127.116.11- Risk and opportunity There are controversial viewpoint on the benefit and downsides of land grabbing. Civil society organization and peasant network from developing countries are concerned over impact on food security, the environment and human rights. Others welcome investment activities in developing countries as important steps for boosting economies. Land grabbing increase competition for land would lead higher land price and in turn the price of food increase. Local people in developing countries would become less able to afford food even it grown in their own country. These two view observed lack of concentration and make it in balance mood to serve both the society and the economic developments of the country and current Ethiopian research effort do not addressed the issue of good governance related to displacements and resettlement programmes and focused only on redevelopment programme and condominium housing constructions. Scholars and professionals including the community debate to reach on con sensus by minimizing the possible risk happening and maximizing its opportunity it has for society. 4.5-Interpretation and Discussion The arrangement of compensation payments for landholders or other individuals whose property or landholdings are taking away isShow MoreRelatedThe Between Hindu And Muslim Women1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages(Jagori 2004). Other than this, they have no access to any type of childcare access. They regularly leave their own kids alone while they go to deal with others youngsters. In their study on paid consideration specialists, Palriwala and Neetha (2009) note that domestic worker highlight their absence of access to institutional consideration offices that give quality care at reasonable rates in their neighborhoods. JAGORI researcher miss Mewa Bharati 2008 study say that working on the issues of migrantRead MoreTata Nano Case11008 Words Ã |Ã 45 Pagesgovernment wants to kick-start an industrial revolution, complete with giant tax-free special economic zones. But its vision of a gleaming factory-powered economy seems to be running headlong into India s dusty agrarian reality. With nearly 700 million people drawing their living off the land, there is little acreage left over for auto plants, steel foundries, and export assembly lines One of the farmers claims that the government without his consent had allocated his three and a half acre plot of landRead MoreTranslation of Newspapers. Problems of British-American Press Headlines Translation15808 Words Ã |Ã 64 Pagesinformative newspaper genre constitute the core content of newspaper contexts. A translator of social and political literature often has to translate articles and notes of informative nature from British and American newspapers, and he should know the stylistic features of such materials well. Newspaper style includes informative materials: news in brief, headlines, ads, additional articles. But not everything published in the paper can be included in the newspaper style; we mean publicist essays, featureRead MoreQs on Forests4908 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesMark) (Ans)Ã Ã Devsari or Dand was a small token fee paid by people of other villages bordering thevillages of Bastar. It was charged when someone from the other village wanted to have some forest products fromBastar. (Q.)How did the forest laws initiate the scope ofÃ employment? (1 Mark) (Ans)Ã Ã Many communities left their traditional occupation and started trading of forest products or other economic activities. For example, the Mundurucu people inÃ BrazilÃ who started collecting latex from wild rubberRead MoreEssay on Sm Ch 21 9112 Words Ã |Ã 37 PagesCHAPTER 21 INCREMENTAL ANALYSIS OVERVIEW OF BRIEF EXERCISES, EXERCISES, PROBLEMS, AND CRITICAL THINKING CASES Brief Exercises B. Ex. 21.1 B. Ex. 21.2 B. Ex. 21.3 B. Ex. 21.4 B. Ex. 21.5 B. Ex. 21.6 B. Ex. 21.7 B. Ex. 21.8 B. Ex. 21.9 B. 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As human resources have become viewed as more critical to organizational success, many organizations have realized that it is the people in an organization that can provide a competitive advantage.2 Throughout the book it will be emphasized that the people as human resources contribute to and affect the competitive success of the organization. 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ISBN-13 978-0470-16968-1 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Brief Contents PA RT 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING HRM The Dynamic Environment of HRM 2 Fundamentals of Strategic HRM 28 PART 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 THE LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONTEXT OF HRM Equal Employment Opportunity 56 Employee Rights andRead MoreAre Protectionist Policies Beneficiak to Business? Essay10942 Words Ã |Ã 44 Pagesthen, the company had only made poor copies of cars made by richer countries. The car was just a cheap subcompact (Ã¢â¬Å"four wheels and an ashtrayÃ¢â¬ ) but it was a big moment for the country and its exporters felt proud. Unfortunately, the car failed. Most people thought it looked lousy, and were reluctant to spend serious money on a family car that came from a place where only second-rate products were made. The car had to be withdrawn from the US. This disaster led to a major debate among the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens
Friday, December 27, 2019
Minimum wage is the least amount of money that an employer is legally required to pay an employee. It is something that all people in the American workforce know about. It was made to prevent the employer from taking advantage of employees. It is what creates the bare minimum standard of living for the 73.9 million hourly wage workers in the United States. However, there are many different jobs with varying amount of skills that are needed for those jobs. This is where the problem arises because a worker may still be under paid for the job that they do. This problem splits the population into two main groups, one that wants the minimum wage to be raised and another that wants the minimum wage to remain the same, or to even be abolished.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The minimum wage was created in order to maintain standard of living necessary for health, and general well being without substantially curtailing employment. (History of the U.S 1) The employer has the freedom to try to make as much money as possible but that many times puts the employee at a great disadvantage even if, for now, it is legal to do so. If the minimum wage were to ever be abolished the employee would be under the mercy of his or her employer which is almost never a good thing because not every CEO or Owners best interest is the employee. Whether it is because of age or the circumstances upon which employee got the job they may get swindled into thinking that what they earn is fair when its really not. Also an employee or worker may simply be uninformed. For example, a person may be paid to work at a job but told to never speak about how much they make or how old they are. These are rights that people have at their job but they can keep a secret but they may never know what a fair wage is. That person may be getting payed the bare minimum while the accepted amount of pay for the same job is many times more than the minimum wage. Even when they know about the unfair wage, the employee thinks that he or she is at a disadvantage and doesnt speak out. The government should not dictate how much a person makes, but it should set limits on the employers who control the wages and who may go mad with power so to speak. Now in modern times,Show MoreRelatedMinimum Wage and Poverty 1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslived in by millions in America. Many American citizens, specifically the children are not only living in poverty, but they are living below the poverty line due to low minimum wage (Gidfar). A child living in poverty can face serious problems in the future. Reducing poverty should not be charity work. As citizens of the world it should be a social responsibility to find a way in which poverty can no longer be a living status, especially for a developed country like America. It is one of the top countriesRead MoreThe Benefits of Raising the Federal Minimum Wage1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPicture this: You are a single parent of two, you work 40 hours a week plus occasional overtime at a minimum wage paying job, you struggle to put food on the table to feed your family, and then you receive a call from the bank saying that your home is being foreclosed. This is the situation faced by thousands of Am ericans every year due to low income and wealth inequality. The federal minimum wage (FMW) as of April 2014 is $7.25, which is not enough to keep a family of two above the poverty line.Read MoreHistory Repeats Itself, A Fight For Fair Wage1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRecovery Act (NRA). The act suspended anti-trust laws so industries could enforce fair-trade resulting in less competition and higher wages. In the beginning of the NRA, Roosevelt promulgated a PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Re-employment Agreement. Employers signed more than 2.3 million agreements, covering 16.3 million employees. Employers agreed to a 35-40 hour workweek, with a minimum wage of $12 to $15 per week. In turn, businesses who signed the agreement displayed a blue eagle over the motto Ã¢â¬Å"We do our part.Ã¢â¬ ThereforeRead MoreWomen Have Been Fighting For Equality In The Work Field989 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmaking living wages and have equal rights. The average salary is clearly higher than it was in the 1800Ã¢â¬â ¢s and 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s but yet the fight remains. The mill girls were the beginning to how we paved the way to America s current labor rights. The mill girls in Massachusetts were a prime example of women who had to fight for most of their lives for fair treatment and equality. Most of the time many aren t even aware that this is going on. For centuries, there has been a fight for wages, equalityRead MoreWho Is The American Dream?1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswho either do not think they need an education or cannot afford one, the dream probably lost. Adults are often saying Ã¢â¬Å"when I was a kid, I had no help with college tuition, I was hardworking and paid it all myself.Ã¢â¬ There is a lot of truth behind that statement. It was much easier to afford college back in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1970, the annual tuition for Yale was $2,550 (Muskus) and minimum wage was $1.45 (Wage and Hour Division (WHD): History of Federal Minimum Wage Rates Under the Fair LaborRead MoreThe Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Multicultural Social Work Practice Essay1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages(Proctor, 2015) This pertains to social work practice, because many of Americans are feeling the pressures of keeping up with the threshold of society, and at the same time appear to be focused. Social work leaders, recognize that not only do finances need to be discussed but they must also be addressed. An individual s, a family s, .......... affect all other aspects of the unit. (Coyle, 2016) Socioeconomics are beginning to affect and shape the social process of this country. These standardsRead MoreCritical Book Review : No Shame in My Game1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgarbage can, but the working poor especially in the inner-city is commonly overlooked by society. However the working poor, in this case the working poor in the inner-city, are people advancing to try and make their lives better. They are taking minimum wage jobs so that they can barely afford a roof over their heads. Within Katherine Newman s novel No Shame In My Game, she studies the working poor in the inner-city to draw conclusions about how to hel p them and dispute common stereotypes and theRead MoreEssay about Preparing a Master Budget686 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWeek Five Individual Assignment Jonathan Scott ACC/561 7-A1) Preparing a Master Budget You are the new manager of the Betterbuy Electronics store in the Mall of America. Top management of Betterbuy Electronics is convinced that management training should include the active participation of store managers in the budgeting process. You have been asked to prepare a complete master budget for your store for June, July, and August. All accounting is done centrally so you have no expert helpRead More Critical Book Review of No Shame in My Game by Katherine Newman1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgarbage can, but the working poor especially in the inner-city is commonly overlooked by society. However the working poor, in this case the working poor in the inner-city, are people advancing to try and make their lives better. They are taking minimum wage jobs so that they can barely afford a roof over their heads. Within Katherine Newman?s novel No Shame In My Game, she studies the working poor in the inner-city to draw conclusions about how to help them and dispute common stereot ypes and the imagesRead MoreDescriptive Statistics Final Paper Wages and Earners4287 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesDescriptive Statistics Paper Tomika Coleman, Antoinette Deleon, Scott Koerning, Alex Lopez RES?341 December 20, 2010 Elaine Raby Descriptive Statistics Paper The wages and wage earners data reports experienced a disparity between men and women. There are multiple reasons why wage disparities exist between men and women. The research conducted by the team will determine why these disparities exist. This paper originates on information of data coming together between both groups. The central
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Communication is a vital tool in our society today because police officers could not serve the public effectively without good communication skills. A lack of the ability to listen or to speak effectively could result in a misunderstanding. Communication plays a very important role in the lives and jobs of police officers. Communication allows officers the ability to better manage evidence by interrogating witnesses and suspects and gathering information. This allows them to make quick and informed decisions. Police officers can only succeed if they master communication, both social and professional, so that they can be comfortable with the public and get their jobs done behind the scenes. Good communication is essential toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For example, in police-civilian interactions, members of the public tend to see the uniform and the badge rather than the individual behind them. However, studies show that police officers who are willing to take the time to show kindness, understanding and consideration when interacting with others--especially those who may be distrustful--will likely foster a more positive atmosphere (Barker et al., 2008). This type of respectfulness goes a long way when officers are doing community service. For example, when officers participate in programs like D.A.R.E, they must show kindnesses when effectively communicating with groups of student and parents. In addition, they can also hold more community meetings. In order to accomplish this, local police in a community would do well to hold regular meetings in to talk about prevalent crimes and how to prevent them. Police officers need to be honest and clear, as we ll as kind, usually when they communicate with victims, as well as when communicating with those who break the law. Police officers need to be part of the community, and communication helps them achieve this. Communication helps police officers get their jobs done behind the scenes. One way police officers communicate is through effective writing; it is communication that the public does not see, but it is still very important. The public does not see police officers filling out the stacks of paperwork inherent in their job, but nevertheless, thisShow MoreRelatedTechnical Communication Methods and Practices Essay1060 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTechnical Communication Methods and Practices Jerome Armstead CJA/363 Interpersonal Communication Don Gemeinhardt There are many different accidents that may occur that law enforcement may encounter on a day to day bases. Officers must know how to react to these calls in order to effective communicate with others. Effective communication will allow an officer the know how to specifically get the help that he needs in order to complete the task with the correct tools. The police officerRead MoreEssay on Barriers to Effective Communication1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBarriers to Effective Communication CJA 304 Barriers to Effective Communication Effective communication is a major element to success in any relationship, business, or organization. Communication barriers attempt to impede, and in some instances stop, the successful completion of the communication process. Law Enforcement agencies are susceptible to the consequences of ineffective communication and should work toward reducing and eliminating barriers blocking the flow of communication. OrganizationalRead MoreBarriers to Effective Communication1479 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1 Barriers Barriers to Effective Communication Paper Robin Mravik Due Date: Monday October 10, 2011 CJA/304 Instructor: Janette Nichols 2 When it comes to communicating with people in our daily lives, there are many people that think there is just talking and listening to the other people in the communicating process. However, there is actually five step in the communication process; which are as follows: 1.) sending the message out to someone, 2.) sending the message through a mediumRead MoreCommunity and Problem-Solving Policing1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbetween police and the community is extremely important. To have a trusting relationship between the two gives our communities a sense of security. The police deal with problems that most of us are not aware of on a daily basis. There job to serve and protect our communities. In doing that there are problems and struggles police face. Having the communities support help make out streets safe. There are many who are not willing to helpin fact, some may have a negative outlook on the police. ReducingRead MoreCommunication in Criminal Justice742 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescandidates to possess strong oral and written communication skills. The essence of communication is the conveyance of a message from sender to receiver. Often times you will find that there is interference that may hinder your communication with the receiver. In the communication process, the parties involved engage in certain unconscious behaviors that direct the flow of communication. There is a step by step process that can be broken down into a communication model. The process begins with the senderRead MoreThe Importance Of Modern Day Policing And Quality Of Service Essay1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction When it comes to any effective entity, a standard is set in place. Whether it is putting the customer first, ensuring a quality of service is provided, or even if it involves making sure the person on the other end has everything resolved before leaving the store every company or profession has a hierarchy of what needs to be done to get the job to completion. The Operations of Police is no different. In this body of work, two types of changes with the police force will be examined, the variousRead MoreTraditional Organizational Structures Of Policing Agencies1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTraditional Organizational Structures of Policing Agencies The principle role of police organizations is to uphold and enforce the law. Police organizations achieve this by safeguarding life and property, maintaining public order, and through detecting and preventing crime. Policing at the state level is composed of separate police organizations. At the state level we have the City or Local Police, County Sheriff and State Police, also known as Highway Patrol or State Troopers. The U.S. government givesRead MoreFactors Of Police Professionalism And Police Responsibility1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFactors of Police Professionalism and Police Responsibility Soncerae Henry American Military University Professor Christopher Davis February 22, 2015 Abstract Placed in a uniform of respect, police officer are held to an expectation that surpasses all. They entitle to exhibit a level of professionalism when interacting with the public and they are expected to preform to the extent of the responsibilities. The passage believe will discuss the element that tie together to make a professionalRead MoreThe Importance Of An Effective Organization, And The Characteristics Of Effective Police Agencies Essay1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOverview: There will be three sections of this paper. The first section will define and explain what effectiveness and efficiency are, the characteristics of an effective organization, and the characteristics of effective police agencies. The second portion will identify a particular crime-related problem, which Overland Park Police Department faces with support of data from our crime analysis unit. Utilizing the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency, the last section will review our currentRead More Future of Policing Essay1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinclude, better educated police officers and police managers, consolidation of police departments to save on money and resources, upgraded technology, race and gender equality, better testing techniques to recruit and promote within the department, and improved proactive planning techniques. One of these proactive tools that will surely become more widely used and implemented better is community policing. It has been evolving since its first i ntroduction into the police world and will see more reforms
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
The School Based Assessment section of Caribbean Studies accounts for 40% of the final grade. This section of the paper is internally assessed and externally moderated. This section of the examination gives candidates the chance to maximize their performance on the final examination. To this end, candidates are encouraged to explore possible topics to choose from the syllabus. At the back of the syllabus (pgs. 42-44) there are a number of broad topics that can be used to explore in the school base assessment. Beginning the Research Process 1. First look at your immediate surroundings for issues you would like to discuss, or better yet, choose an issue you feel passionately about. In identifying a research problem one should keep the following in mind: * It should be of interest to you; * It should be within your expertise; * It should be worthwhile or significant; * It should be Ã¢â¬Ëdo-ableÃ¢â¬â¢; * It should be manageable. (Source: Leacock, Coreen et al, (2009). Research Methods for Inexperienced Researchers. Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. . The next step is to gather as much information as possible on the topic (literature). There are several sources where you can find information; you can first start by looking at some books, journals, etc. In the age of the electronic media, the internet is the most popular place you may want to look. There may be a number of persons in your community you may want to talk to on the subject matter. Depending on the nature of the study, you may be fortunate enough to visit a website based on the subject you may be doing research on. Ensure that for the subject matter you have chosen there is enough material around for you to build your research. If this is not the case, do not give up, choose another topic. 3. After you have decided on a broad topic that you would like to research, you need to start the more difficult part of the paper which is narrowing the topic. Very often students have very interesting topics but they fail to obtain a comfortable grade due to the fact that their topic would have been too wide. Owing to the limitation on length, students must be very selective as to how they choose their area so as to maximize on the word limit. Please note that candidates would be penalized for exceeding the word limit. 4. The next step is to formulate a PROBLEM STATEMENT. The problem statement identifies the intent of purpose of the research (Leacock et al, 2009). This process involves thinking, discarding and re-formulating the problem so that it meets the criteria necessary for a researchable problem (Caribbean Studies, Study Guide, 2004). Therefore, the problem statement refers to a logical and concise sentence which expresses the topic that the researcher is investigating. 5. Below are examples of problem statements. Please note how the topics are narrowed: a. The economic effects of increased gang-related activities in the McKnight community in St. Kitts. b. The effects of the rise in the pre-school population upon the pre-school system in Charlestown, Nevis. c. Rastafarian children in the Basseterre area face unfair discrimination in school. OR d. Do Rastafarian children who attend school in Basseterre face discrimination in school? e. There is a significant relationship between the age of voters and their preference of political party, [ in St. Kitts] , ( Leacock et al, 2009) A well written problem statement usually identifies the variables, in which you are interested, the specific relationship between those variables that you are examining, and where possible, the types of participants involved (Leacock et al, 2009, pg. 26). Note in the above topics the focus is very specific. First of all the geographic location is identified and a very specific area of the topic is chosen. The possibilities are limitless; the student with some guidance from the lecturer can be as creative as they wish in doing the topic. 6. Below are some examples of topics that would be too wide to be examined: a. An examination of crime in the Caribbean. b. Religion in Basseterre. c. The impact of the Mass Media on St. Kitts The first problem with topics in the above is that they are too wide; the student undertaking topics worded like this would never complete the research. In the limited time space given they would not produce a paper of an acceptable standard. How can these topics be corrected? Let us use Ã¢â¬Å"Religion in BasseterreÃ¢â¬ as an example. To correct this topic in order for it to be used as School-Based Assessment we first need to decide on which religion we would be examining, after which, we need to choose a specific area in Basseterre we wish to examine. The religion, for example, that we can explore is Rastafarianism and the location, for example, in Basseterre that we can research on is New Town. We can even be more specific and examine what area of Rastafarianism we would want to explore; for this purpose, we can probably examine women in Rastafarianism. Now that we have all the specific areas, we can now structure our topic. The topic should read as followsÃ¢â¬ An examination of Rastafarian women in the New Town CommunityÃ¢â¬ . The topic now has a narrowed focus, hence, the student can now proceed to select their information from which they could have gathered to fit their topic. FORMAT OF THE RESEARCH PAPER a. Length: 2000-2,500 words. b. Structure: Cover Page ( Title , Name, Date, Registration number, Territory, Centre Number); c. Acknowledgements d. Table of Contents: i. Introduction and Purpose of Research ii. Literature Review iii. Data Collection Sources and Methodology iv. Presentation of Data and Analysis of Data v. Discussion of Findings vi. Conclusion/Limitations of Research/ Recommendations vii. Bibliography viii. Appendices The Structure of the Research Paper Candidates are strongly advised to use the structure and sequence outlined in the syllabus to prepare their study (page 35). The Introduction The introduction is the face of the paper since this is what the reader would see first, therefore the candidate should make a good first impression. (An introduction is the opening of the paper that introduces the reader to the topic addressed by the paper and why it is significant. ) The introduction should be focused, interesting and linked to the topic. A weak introduction can turn off the reader. What then should be in the introduction? The introduction should have several parts which are as follows: a. Background of Study. This section of the introduction would provide information about the topic that would assist the reader in understanding the context in which the topic is being discussed, for example using the topic we choose previously, Ã¢â¬Å"An examination of Rastafarianism women in the New Town communityÃ¢â¬ we may wish to discuss the location of New Town, the development of Rastafarianism in the community, and also any significant or outstanding issue that would link Rastafarianism to that community. We can also look at the socio-economic background of the community and the age of the community. b. Problem Statement. The problem statement identified the intent or purpose of the research. Formulating one calls for much thought on your part because this statement guides what data you collect, from whom you collect it, how you analyse it and how you interpret the results of your analysis. A good problem statement tells the reader what the focus of your research is, and clues them to the types of questions that you are going to try to answer. A well written problem statement usually identified the variables, in which you are interested, the specific relationship between those variables that you are examining, and where possible, the types of participants involved. Remember each statement must be a grammatically stated sentence that is clear and concise. (Leacock et al, 2009) c. Statement of the Problem. The Statement of the Problem is an opportunity for the candidate to provide background information on how they identified the problem as a synopsis of what the research will entail. A good statement of the problem elaborates and extends the problem statement. ) d. Purpose of the Research. The purpose of the research clearly outlines why the candidates choose to write on the topic, what about the topic or the issue which interested the candidate. Some students may wish to examine this section by doing some research questions. e. The Educational Value of the Research. This section follows next. As the title implies this sect ion seeks to describe what educational importance this study has for the candidate and the wider reading public. The student may wish to indicate that the project enables them to develop research skills, the topic chosen would be providing the general community with information about Rastafarianism women in Irish Town. f. Definition of Technical Terms used in the study. This section is the last in the introduction which most students take for granted, but this section is very important to the study. Candidates are required to define any technical terms used in the study, also the meaning of the words used in the tile or topic. N. B Candidates are instructed to ensure that they include all sections indicated in the above in the Introduction of the School-Based Assessment. Literature Review [A] Literature review summarizes and evaluates a body of writings about a specific topic. In general, a literature review has two key elements. First, it should concisely summarize the findings or claims that have emerged from prior research efforts on a subject. Second, a literature review should reach a conclusion about how accurate and complete that knowledge is; it should present your considered judgments about whats right, whats wrong, whats inconclusive, and whats missing in the existing literature. Conducting a literature review can have several benefits: i. It can give you a general overview of a body of research with which you are not familiar. ii. It can reveal what has already been done well, so that you do not waste time reinventing the wheel. iii. It can give you new ideas you can use in your own research. iv. It can help you determine where there are problems or flaws in existing research. v. It can enable you to place your research in a larger context, so that you can show what new conclusions might result from your research. (Knopf, 2006). The literature review places the research clearly in context. Also, analyze all quotations. Do not cut and paste information- (does not allow for the flow of the argument). Candidates must also correctly cite the work used in this section. For example, if you are using a text by Eric Williams the name of the text should be underlined and the year the text was published and if possible the page, if it is a direct quotation in brackets. The citation should look like the following below: Eric Williams (1977) in his text Capitalism and Slavery argued that slavery built industrialization and industrialization in turn destroyed slavery. NB. Candidates should use a variety of sources (books, journals, internet, television documentary, newspapers, magazines, leaflets/ brochures from UN, UNESCO, CARICOM, PAHO, etc. ) Data Collection Sources and Methodology For some time this section seems to be the most difficult to grasp by candidates. The Data Collection Sources are a critique of the sources from which the data was obtained for the study. This section demands that the student exam the strengths and the weaknesses of the sources. Hence, for example, the candidate should state whether or not the sources contained any biases, and give reasons to why the sources may be biased, or the student may discuss if the documents / sources are credible or not and likewise say why it may be or may be not credible. Methodology The methodology is a bit more straightforward. This section is used if the candidate chose to collect his/her own data (primary data). This section should describe how the data was collected, the specific time the data was collected, the sample group from which the data was collected. Presentation and Analysis Data The presentation is very basic and most studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance is exceptional in this area. Students who have access to the electronic media use many creative ways of presenting their data. Whatever graphs /tables/charts are used must be well labeled and clearly outlined. The section is not merely restricted to graphs only. It must also be noted that while graphs should be used these graphs must be of various kinds. The analysis of data demands that the candidates effectively and efficiently analyze the data they would have collected. Marks are often lost in this section because students merely describe what the graphs or tables are showing; this is in no way enough, and candidates MUST give reasons for what is shown in the tables and on the graphs. For example, a graph might show that in May of 2001 there were 5 road fatalities, in June of that same year there were 20 and in December, 25. It would not be enough in the analysis of data to merely state that the road fatalities increased steadily over the period. The candidates must move on further to state why there might have been increases in these road fatalities. From the data candidates might want to suggest that since December is the period for Carnival on St. Kitts, the increased uses of the road around this time might increase the chances of road fatalities. The previous example of analysis is the type which this section is demanding. CandidateÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to do so would result in a poor grade. NB: Analysis of Data MUST be placed under each graph/ table/chart. Discussion of Findings This section can be very difficult for the candidate who has failed to properly research his/her topic. The Discussion is fairly simple; this section demands a comparison between the Literature Review and what the candidates would have discovered from their research. The students who failed to effectively research material to obtain a proper Literature Review would find that their Discussion of Findings would be weak. Candidates should also discuss the implications of their findings. For example, the student should be able to state what their findings suggest. Conclusion/ Limitations and Recommendations Conclusion The conclusion is the summary of the main findings and the present implications, and how the findings relate to previous studies on the problem. Tips for a strong Conclusion * Bring out the significance of your research paper. Show how you have brought closure to the research problem, and point out remaining gaps in knowledge by suggesting issues for further research. Deal with issues at the level of the whole paper rather than with issues at the level of a paragraph. * Make the significance brought out in the conclusion congruent with the argument of your paper. Do not oversell or undersell the significance of your paper. The conclusion cannot reach any farther than the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument. The conclusion is the place to put the final, proper perspective on the paper as a whole. * Bring closure to the entire paper, not only by summarizing the arguments, but also by bringing out the significance of the paper. Avoid using terms related to specific elements of the paperÃ¢â¬âlook at the paper as a whole and pull it all together in the conclusion. * Make the conclusion sell a worthwhile paper to interested readers. Exercise integrity in your conclusionÃ¢â¬âdo not exaggerate the conclusion to bring strength to a weak paper. There should be a strong correlation between the arguments in your paper and your stated significance(s) in the conclusion. In the case of a thesis or dissertation, readers will likely turn first to the conclusion. Do not let your readers get motivated by your conclusion to read the rest of the documentÃ¢â¬âonly to experience disappointment. * Use key terms, concepts and phrases from the introduction and body of the paperÃ¢â¬âbut do not just repeat them. Use them to bring out the new insight gained from your research. The conclusion should provide more than a flat-footed re-statement of the [research] statement articulated in the introductionÃ¢â¬âit should take the entire paper a step ahead toward a new level of insight on the research problem. * Make the tone of the conclusion match the tone of the rest of the paper. For most of your Ã¢â¬ ¦ papers, keep the tone seriousÃ¢â¬âomit jokes and anecdotes from the conclusion. In the context of an academic argument, humor is generally inappropriate and could seriously detract from your paperÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility. * Write the conclusion at a level of specificity/generality that matches the introduction. Do not use the conclusion to summarize the previous paragraphÃ¢â¬ârather, pull the entire paper together and make its significance clear. A concluding chapter should draw conclusions for each major issues raised in the document. For any type of paper, do not overreach the conclusionÃ¢â¬âmake statements that can be fully supported by your evidence. * Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion. The conclusion signals readers that the writer will point out the significance of the paper at this point, and bring the entire paper to a clear and definite end. Just as the minister should never introduce a new point in the concluding remarks of a sermon, the writer should not introduce another point in the conclusion. Expecting the end, readers will be disappointedÃ¢â¬âor annoyedÃ¢â¬âto find yet more new information. * Put your best writing skills into the conclusion Never allow the first draft to stand as the final productÃ¢â¬ârevise the conclusion again and again until its integrity is practically unassailable. (Source: TIPS FOR WRITING A STRONG CONCLUSION Barry W. Hamilton, Ph. D. Northeastern Seminary (Rochester, New York) (http://acc. oberts. edu/NEmployees/Hamilton_Barry/TIPS%20FOR%20WRITING%20A%20STRONG%20CONCLUSION. htm) Limitations All studies have limitations. It is imperative that the candidates restrict their discussion to limitations related to the research problem under investigation. Mentions must be made of some factors identified to be limitations of the research. For example, the size of the sample, type of sampl e used, lack of available data, cultural bias, time frame of the study, access etc. NB: Do not list concerns, explain fully. Recommendations This section of the research the candidates should clearly express their recommendations-focusing on what more can be done in the area of study. The recommendations must be related to the issue/ problem being studied. Reference / Bibliography At the end of the study candidates should have a list of scholarly works cited in alphabetical order by author. The bibliography provides the reader with the sources of the information.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
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